Benefits Of Urban Regeneration

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Benefits Of Urban Regeneration

Keywords: urban regeneration results, urban redevelopment. urban environmental changes

Urban decay, usually associated with deprived areas, tends have a tendency to be a characteristic of poorer communes, reflecting their low earning ability and susceptibility to the bigger unemployment rates connected with changes in the structure of the national overall economy (Skifter Andersen, 2003). The a sense that buildings are actually falling right into a state of decay especially in some areas more than others, often results in an excrescence of dilapidated and vacant structures. By remaining vacant, properties are generally targeted for professional signage and vandalism unless put through a population change or economic restructuring (McGregor and McConnachie, 1995; Skifter Andersen, 2003). The redevelopment of decaying, run-down or underused elements of cities with the intention of bringing new life and economic vitality is vital in maintaining a market position (Bolton Council, 2009).

Redeveloping these structural products, however, might not be an easy task, as a arranged physical as well as casual mechanisms likely to be different in every area, are as well accentuating the situation of urban decay. According to Skifter Andersen (2003), one of the significant reasons of urban decay is the decline of the local economy. The adjustments in the framework of the countrywide and international market can directly or indirectly influence the local overall economy as outlined in Haggett’s Cumulative Decline Style (2001). Certain authorities intervention and planning guidelines with regard to the market and alterations in the locational tastes of the industries to better equipped sites are likewise assumed to get among the primary factors behind decline by increasing the gap between the core and periphery. In the same way, the populace age structure generally in most Western countries is changing with a growing number of elderly dominating the demographic chart (Commission on Expansion and Production, 2008). This disinclination of the population is likely to remain in the very urbanised areas resulting in a number of blight properties that will probably fall into a talk about of disrepair research paper writing if structural expense keeps lacking. Perhaps, following Myrdal’s Cumulative Causation theory (1972) might help inject vigour into the local economy from the institutional set-up (Fujita, 2004). However, this process of urban renewal, by which environmental quality redevelopments occur in derelict urban areas, is highly contested.

This chapter reviews decided on literature that concerns the consequences of regeneration in the urban key of funds with regard to the worthiness enhancement and great externality of building refurbishment while deciding the social and economic implications.

Urban Regeneration

Urban regeneration most likely to take the kind of public policy so as to regulate urban processes, efforts to enhance the urban environment through renewal (Couch et al., 2003). Although seeming fairly easy and straightforward, Home (1982) describes the idea of urban regeneration as regarding complex socio-economical, environmental and political problems, with no profession or academic disciple declaring control over it. Roberts (in Roberts and Sykes, 2000) defines urban regeneration as a perspective which brings about the image resolution of urban challenges and which seeks to get lasting socio-economic, physical and environmental circumstances of a location that has been subject to change.

Broadly defined as an activity that helps prevent the urban cloth from starting or continuing to deteriorate by increasing the urban cloth, urban regeneration is certainly fundamental to the composition plans proven by the Malta Environmental and Arranging Authority in 1998 and 2006. Based on the Priority Actions Programme/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC, 2004) of the Mediterranean countries, the purpose of urban regeneration tasks as a solution to the phenomenon in developed is definitely to promote:

“return to the town, revitalise the city centre, restore activity in a fiercely competitive overseas context, and put into practice initiatives to improve the quality of the surroundings operating in a broad sense towards a good growth”.

Such systemised and planned action concerning certain elements of a town would mean injecting brand-new vigour into an area. Skifter Andersen (2003) argues urban regeneration would transform, strengthen and recreate locations to act as a catalyst for further investments for the benefit for the neighborhood community. By concentrating general public resources and exclusive investments on particularly designated area risk turning an area to an excellent appeal (Adair et al., 2000). However, urban regeneration isn’t just concentrated around property-led and retail-led regeneration but as well through cultural regeneration to change the town as a form of urban recreation (Evans, 2001). According to Evans (2001), arts and cultural industries can differentiate themselves by restoring identities and economies with other lifestyles.

Whilst Calxton and Siora (2008) recognise the retail sector as offering prospects and employing a wide selection of different socio-economic organizations, they argue that retail-led regeneration seems to provide a key reconnection to monetary opportunity by participating in direct employment and extra investment for a network and its people. Furthermore, Claxton and Siora (2008) maintain that the most successful advancements are those backed by the neighborhood authorities where arranging or economical development departments interact. On the other hand, Rubin and Taylor (2008) question the tremendous institutional corporate electricity of certain chain retailers that might involve some influence on the look program and in regeneration tasks. According to them, the benefits from such regeneration happen to be overstated as this kind of regeneration produces an inverse program that extorts money out of the local economy leading to serious consequences for tiny local businesses.

Pitkin (1963) sustains that as an important trait within numerous Mediterranean communities is the urban ethos, the city is depicted as a place of cultural richness, civilisation and civic pride (Leontidou, 2000). Strengthening this argument, Florida (2003) suggested that as cultural ethos is now increasingly dominant generally in most entrepreneurial and growing regions, it really is attracting creative people to the city and accentuating the functions of gentrification. Additionally, Ley (2003) likewise accentuates the value of cultural and life-style of the middle school, who value the preservation of the historical key and the utilisation of outstanding commodities. Bailey et al. (2004) shows that culture-led regeneration has just been effective when associated with commercialised identities, therefore stressing the need for economic investments and retail establishments. Hiller (2000) shows that for waterfront regeneration with transformation of the urban environment with deluxe residences and gentrified neighbourhoods must be create jobs through several office towers along with shopping centres, contained in most projects.

As cities should never be still, Lancaster (1995) experienced previously argued they are places where people strive to overcome unwanted effects and create expectation in the area that record has located them. Regarding to Dunn (1998), the consumer culture might therefore encourage citizens to disattach themselves from their unique region and associate themselves to the new global traditions irrelevant of the positioning. Bailey et al. (2004), disagrees and argues that cultural forms of consumption can actively boost and enliven localized communities. Bailey et al. (2004) goes further by suggesting that it is the people who reside in the city themselves have to engage in regenerating the location rather than the planning guidelines. Kantor et al. (1997), stresses the importance of regional urban democratic circumstances in creating inclusive governing that may influence the neighborhood community’s ability to participate and have a reach in the business.


As described by Kennedy and Leonard (2001), gentrification involves the procedures of reinvestment and revitalisation to enhance the physical and socio-economic parts of metropolitan areas. In this relationship, bigger income households settle for the reason that settle in the area, upgrade the physical and socio-economic element of lower income residences. Smith (1987b, p.463), especially stated that the key point in regards to to gentrification is certainly that:

“…it involves not only a social change but also, at the neighbourhood scale, a physical switch in the housing share and an monetary change in the area and housing marketplace. It is this combination of social, physical, and economic transformation that distinguishes gentrification as an identifiable procedure/set of processes”.

Furthermore, Wyly and Hammel (1999, p.716) add that the process of gentrification complements:

“class transformation of those parts of the city that experienced from systematic outmigration, disinvestment and neglect, or neglect in the midst of rapid economical growth and suburbanisation”.

Badcock (2001), argues that today the procedure of gentrification and restructuring have become so interrelated together that they have shaped the broader transformation referred to as revitalisation. Furthermore, households of median and larger incomes generally benefit the preservation of the historical core and contribute to raising the area’s ethos (Ley, 2003). Therefore, job in the tertiary, quaternary and quinary sectors of creation, usually connected with having a university level, is an integral indicator of gentrification regarding to Ley (2003). Quite simply, the post-contemporary lifestyles of consumption are the solution towards revitalisation of a location through the procedures of gentrification. Consequently, the process of gentrification can be said to be the outcome of the range of responses to the new economic and social chances that come up from prior dispositions of the cultural classes (Bridge 2001).

On the other side, Smith and Williams (1986) were particularly concerned with displacement and the medial side effects the middle school is having on the lower working course through the operations of gentrification. Although the degree of the challenge is not arranged, Sumka (1979) argues that displacement of the doing work class through rent boosts was undoubtedly a major issue. Recently, Blomley (2004) outlines that the social combine the functions of gentrification deliver with them have a tendency to expose the working classes to many equalities in the social hierarchy as interaction between the owners and tenants in gentrified neighbourhoods appears to be limited. Slater (2006) argues that process can result in sociable segregation and isolation when hoping to revitalise a neighbourhood. However, relating to Sigworth and Wilkinson (1967) the effective effects to the city through gentrification outweigh the issues of social segregation that can be resolved through several plans.

Ideal Scenario

In a society where the lack of building care lifestyle is increasing, prompt protection would help make aging buildings not as much problematic to rehabilitate as it is often the circumstance that such buildings are located in a state of disrepair with many safety problems. Throughout the 1970s, many of the European countries had already started emphasise the gradual renewal procedure for rehabilitation rather than focusing on the massive redevelopments simultaneously (Wood, 1991).

Thomas (1977), advised that making method for redevelopment would give a chance to

replace any substandard buildings, any clashes with regard to the land-use, as well as any environmental nuisance. Although essentially the process of redevelopment causes a whole lot of inconvenience as it dislocates persons (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004), redevelopment might help utilizing the full potential of a niche site in addition to exploiting the beneficial results to the city such as solving the issues related to cultural segregation (Sigworth and Wilkinson, 1967). Amongst the primary issues that dominate the list for the issue of urban renewal, the lack of institutional arranging (Adams and Hastings, 2001) and unfair reimbursements (Kam et al., 2004). This raises the query of whether it would be eloquent to redevelop instead of to rehabilitate certain properties in some areas. It was proposed that the decision making on whether to “rehabilitate” or “redevelop” is generally influenced by six factors namely; political, legal, technological, institutional, social and economic forces (Walker, 2002). Regarding to Olson et al. (2001) and Hobman and Bordia (2006), the influences of the professional function history on the attitudes towards a renewal project can also make a difference. For example, building surveyors are thought to consider the structural conditions of a particular building as the utmost vital concepts of consideration in a regeneration process. Conversely, the town planners have a tendency to give extra importance to the impacts of the job in the visual quality and micro environment of the neighbourhood rather than the structural conditions of a setting up (Olson et al., 2001, Hobman and Bordia, 2006).

Despite these converging views, it is evident that the execution of an urban renewal technique specially when done on a massive scale would add a strong financial input. This would also need to be coupled with satisfactory public assets, and a determined commitment to solving to the urban dereliction issues while aiming towards increasing the social and economic benefits and fostering entrepreneurial activity (Hamnet, 2000; Skifter Andersen, 2003; Calxton and Siora, 2008). In such circumstances, additionally it is advisable that there should be advancements to the infrastructure, the transportation system plus the environment that should all coincide with the renewal development which has the support of all social companions (Adair et al., 2000). Yet, as such conditions rarely occur, policy makers must shape their development strategies based upon the constraints they face at the particular moment in time. Williams (2006) advised that so that you can ensure a more successful task, the ruling authority can also use its powers associated with property development to influence the look, the infrastructure and the compulsory pay for powers alongside the option of public land assets. When trading land for example, it isn’t a uncommon occurrence that one get together missing from the market forum and so the scenario of a compulsory order might be required to ensure that the renewal project never to be taken to a halt because by the individual financial forces (Williams, 2006).

To redevelop or even to rehabilitate?

Specifically on property-led redevelopment, Harvey (1992) highlighted that the timing of redevelopment tasks rely upon three essential issues being; the value of the current existing utilization of the land resource, the current value of the greatest of alternative make use of, and the price of rebuilding. As the utilization of property is not irreversible, property has the potential to get redeveloped and converted into another type or consumption to suit the expected socio-economic demands at confirmed time (Gunnerlin, 2001). In line with the structure plan issued by the Malta Planning Authority (PA) (1998), there is a need:

“to use area and buildings efficiently and consequently channel urban development activity into planned developed areas especially though rehabilitation and upgrading of existing textile and infrastructure”.

Notionally, if the present value of the prevailing use of the land information is greater than the present value of the greatest alternative use, redevelopment wouldn’t normally take place since it wouldn’t normally be financially practical, and the rebuilding costs would have an impact on the occurrence of urban renewal. This clarifies why in some cases redevelopment in the previous, urban core is less attractive to the programmers (Harvey and Jowsey, 2004).

As for the choice of rehabilitation, which would mean securing the existing structure, it was figured it could only be advantageous when a number of circumstances are met (Pugh, 1991). This might imply that the service lifestyle of a building will be prolonged by another thirty to fifty years. Furthermore, the value in addition to the interest rate of the existing building would also have to be high. On top of that, Pugh (1991) argues that if the immediate and indirect costs of rehabilitating will be considerably significantly less than those incurred by rebuilding, then the developer would be even more tempted to rehabilitate instead of redevelop. Ratcliffe (1993) likewise estimated that the expenses of renovating a setting up can amount to twenty-five percent significantly less than starting a fresh building project and thus making it more attractive for developers. Aikivuori (1994) points out that refurbishments may sometimes be required when there exists a need for switch in the land-use along with when you will find a need to increase or secure the market value of the building. Additionally, this might also help preserve the existing building and its externalities which may be significant in inducing a culture-led regeneration.

Challenges facing the renewal process

“Housing is definitely seen as a durable commodity” (Wieand, 1999), yet, like any other physical commodity, houses are at the mercy of deteriorate as time goes by and eventually fall into a state of dilapidation if they’re not correctly maintained (Burton 1933). A number of previous studies have got highlighted among of the main factors that could make a building deemed for renewal will be the serviceable environment (Sohmer, 1999). Others like Rosenfeld and Shohet (1999) have formed types to determine whether and when a building should be upgraded. This helped to lessen uncertainties and serve as an aid when deciding whether to upgrade or not.

Nonetheless, one should remember there are always a set of constraints that will probably slow or halt the procedure of urban renewal. The multiple ownership of a number of properties is one of these for reflection essay example instance (Chun To Cho and Fellows, 2000; Galea Debono, 2009). So are the constraints on the advancement in the urban village core through the Urban Conservation Spot (UCA) which restricts certain types of redevelopment jobs. Additionally, it is also likely that there might be disputes along the way of resettling those damaged and disagreements on compensation issues which make it more difficult for the private designers to locate a compromise with the landowners (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004). Furthermore, additionally it is often the case that the lack of a central governing overall body to put into practice redevelopment and non-public developers’ little presumptive power, wrap up with the builders having fragmented, slow progress (Gordon, 2004).

Positive outcomes from urban regeneration

Fundamentally, the procedure of urban regeneration would help to contribute towards the preservation of structures of architectural value and significant historical importance (Jim, 1994). A sustainable regeneration scheme should accordingly endeavour to lesson sociable exclusion, boost economic reintegration in addition to salvage architecturally rich buildings and edifices (McGregor and McConnachie, 1995; Skifter Andersen, 2003; Bailey et al.,2004). Usually, an urban regeneration job can be quite a source of conflict and thus it could prove valuable to develop a decision making program to facilitate the look process as recommended by Walker (2002) and Ho et al. (2004) in shape 2.1.

Figure Project facility making software (Ho et al., 2004).

Eventually, task regeneration proposals could be assessed and alterations can be made in order to achieve a higher rating for the program which is at the mercy of time, budgetary and other sensible constraints (Ho et al., 2004). Relating to Kocabas, (2000a), evaluating the affect of protection setting up would ideally determine outcomes against the physical, social and economic objectives. This should preserve the physical historical environment, the demands of the existing residents during the procedure for upgrading and also determining if the conservation process is economically viable (Kocabas, 2000a). Alternatively, Borja et al. (1997) revealed that the socio-spatial outcomes of globalisation on urban areas varied based on the correlation between the technological and economic functions that form the core for this transformation.

Whilst it is now widely accepted that “no metropolis can get away the reach of global economic and political forces” (Sassen, 2000; Taylor and Walker, 2001), additionally it is clear that “locations can upgrade their position in the global hierarchy by their strategic intervention” (Clarke and Gaile, 1997). This was the circumstance with Ireland in 1988, for example. Through the help of the European Commission, Ireland reflected on the problems made through the demolishment of buildings in interior Dublin through the “Greater Dublin Area Development Program” secured and managed the preservation of the developed historical environment (Pickard, 1994).

Essentially, the upgrade or upkeep of neighbourhood externalities can be thought to donate to the migration and related switch in a neighbourhood’s economical status for two main reasons. Firstly, particular types of households may behave with techniques that generate social capital and affluence for the neighbourhood influencing the demand for that area, thus, the procedure of gentrification (Ley, 2003). Likewise, selected types of households may also decide to migrate into or out of a neighbourhood based on the demographic and fiscal characteristics of their possible neighbours because of the social status, regardless of how these neighbours may behave (Rosenthal, 2008). Regardless of this, it is vital to recognise that raising a neighbourhood’s financial status does not necessarily alleviate poverty but could simply force the prevailing low income residents to relocate to the areas of the locality. Jacobs (1961) argued that instead of staying suffocated by urban regeneration, social life ought to be revived, thus, the procedure of gentrification is probably not always seen in a good light especially from those who are less affluent and different deprived sections of world (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004). Therefore, setting up rehabilitation may garner even more support since it causes less interpersonal disturbances (Needleman, 1966; DeFilippis, 2007).

Achieving success through failure

Amongst the good types of successful waterfront regeneration assignments that have managed to generate enough occupations for the locals, Gloucester, Swansea, Cardiff

and Liverpool immediately stick out in the United Kingdom (Jones and Gripaios, 2000). In such cases, numerous listed warehouses had been refurbished and transformed to supply residential, workplace, retail, museum, marinas and cafe facilities. Liverpool’s Albert Dock, for instance, has been so effective as a heritage blog that once was in a state of decay that it right now gets around six million guests yearly (Jones and Gripaios, 2000). From being truly a absolutely abandoned and neglected eyesore, the Albert Dock has now been turned into a visually pleasing environment with obvious and tangible manifestations of good regeneration project in britain. Canary Wharf in London is normally another powerful redevelopment that even managed to generate 7,000 jobs for the locals (Daniels and Bobe, 1993).

In spite of these successful conditions of regeneration, the procedure of urban renewal still generates a great deal of heated debate in particular when confronted fierce opposition from the locals that fear that there would no significant improvement within their standard of living such as regarding Canary Wharf in London. Quite rightly as Jeffrey and Pounder (2000) suggest, the physical improvement of a building is a simple element in achieving a successful regeneration project, however Hausner (1993), advised that on its own it is not sufficient as the expansion of any job reflects the circumstances and requirements of the region in which the project is located from a wider perspective. Furthermore, Moore (2002) sustains that the proactive use of this policy may improve the local financial development and also create new working places, however, this may only be for some time. Hemphill et al. (2004) argues that much of the research conducted in the United Kingdom is commonly critical as there is a persistent sentiment that urban coverage has not really left most of the desired results on the regenerated place. This had recently been thought earlier as despite the fact that the inner-city redevelopments generally boost and improve the degraded built conditions, there is definitely criticism that such projects only cater to certain sectors of culture and particular locations such as waterfronts and therefore these kind of projects can fragment locations (Fainstein, 1994; Meyer, 1999; Marshall, 2003).

Further criticism concludes that the explained goal of urban design and renewal is normally forgotten as the principles have become only a marketing tool (Gospodini, 2002). Moreover, it is generally felt that the idea of urban renewal is as well vague with the fusion of the traditional architecture, the landscape architecture, and the look and civil engineering. As a result, urban renewal is said to be focused predominantly on the marginal aesthetic aesthetics of the landscape rather than helping to sustain an improved standard of living in the area (Inam, 2002). Hubbard (2006) added that the sociable together with economic conditions of a location are usually worsened though the regeneration and gentrification policies that are meant to be useful. On a wider level, Newman and Thornley (1996) had previously recommended that in contrast with other cities, the key European cities such as; Paris, Milan, Berlin, Frankfurt and Stockholm will be underpinned by the aspect of the intercontinental competitiveness rather than by the idea of urban policy and therefore the residents’ quality lifestyle has nothing to do concept of urban renewal. Bentley (1999) went even more and argued that in addition to the social, monetary and environmental limitations, the concept of urban design is normally manipulated by developers and public authorities to covertly hijack general public space and neglect local conditions and values. Revitalisation projects targeted parts of the cities, such as for example decayed port areas and other post-industrial sites, for important redevelopments in order that the area in effect becomes totally gentrified resulting in a residential place for the considerably more affluent citizens rather than the whole society on the whole (Bentley,1999).

Proprietors’ awareness and involvement

It is evident that among biggest barriers in terms of building maintenance is the owners’ awareness that find it hard to realise the basic kinds of decay and the resulting effect on the building material (Kangwa and Olubodun, 2003). To make matters worse, when actions is taken, it is normally the case that an inappropriate remediation strategy is applied (Leather and Mackintosh, 1994; Forrest et al., 1996). Thus, any effective renewal system should be constructed upon well informed diagnostic skill structures. Chanter and Swallow (1996) and Davidson et al. (1997) have suggested that a few of the primary awareness problems apart from the variants in perceptions of things of regular maintenance are the inability to inform whether inferior items or components are being used to rehabilitate the setting up. In addition to this, in addition they add that the common owner is generally unable to determine the caliber of job done by the investors and cannot judge effectively the extent of skill required for a particular work. Ultimately they argue that the absence of a referral program within the local housing communities which would become a short contacts for advice and general information on housing maintenance. As a result, it is often the circumstance that waves of creating depilation later turn into the process of urban decay that has been a major problem generally in most developed locations (Skifter Andersen, 1995).

It should be recognised that the neighborhood inhabitants are fundamentally the situation solvers and play an important and useful role not only in implementing regeneration approaches but also in retaining the socio-economical improvement of the neighbourhood over time. As powerlessness is definitely central to people’s experience of poverty and exclusion, the persons in general are more likely to involve themselves if indeed they can clearly discover their contribution in the city (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2005). Throughout the last number of years, the local citizens have also been emphasizing that new developments should retain their unique characteristic and identity to be able to reflect their collective remembrances. Public consultation meetings are no longer satisfying the citizens as they believe that a thorough public engagement training for the project is required and more channels should be provided to allow them to express their views on the developments (Lee and Chan, 2008).

Research has displayed that in the lack of government intervention, home owners are prepared to enhance their buildings and edifices because it would enhance the market benefit of the refurbished homes provided that there will do information for individuals to take sensible decisions (Holm, 2000; Gregg and Crosbie, 2001). Besides from having restored setting up edifices, this type of refurbishment task is estimated to improve the market price of the house which leaves an excellent profit after deducting the costs of the refurbishment job (Chau et al., 2003). Improvements on the buildings especially on the facades are intuitively expected to have a positive impact on properties next to the building due to the improved visual top quality enjoyed by the nearby residents. Also, unsightly externalities are manufactured by the unsightliness of badly maintained properties, consequently, refurbishing these poor preserved buildings should reduce or even counter the negative impact (Colwell et al., 2000; Boyle and Kiel, 2001).

Nevertheless, while everyone would reap the benefits of improving the exterior conditions of the structures, the marketplace value of the houses improved first would have their worth depreciated by the dire state of the neighbouring properties and thus for a person to take the initial step would not be easy. Subsequently, the unimproved houses would experience a rise in value therefore of the nearby investments done by the others. Consequently, this may also lead to market inability as the refurbishment method may never take off completely resulting in an investment which is less than what was preferred (Hui et al., 2007). Should more info on the enhanced market value of a refurbished building be made available, then the long-term sustainability of a rehabilitation work would be incorporated into the urban renewal strategies very easily, however, one should never forget that the effects may not be felt until a long time. In this particular scenario, the authority in control should encourage and inspire creators and owners to instigate redevelopment. Ultimately, the process of renewal is usually a “product of an incremental decision making” as owners need to determine whether to rehabilitate or redevelop their built territory which is subject to facing obsoleteness (Bryson, 1997).

Figure 1: Hamdi (2004) Everyone (civic culture) should benefit by participating

Concluding Remarks

As authorities are widely considered as the ones in charge of the procedure of urban decay, they began to be seen as being unable to engage effectively with the non-public sector. With the go up of the new conservative movements, the neighborhood government started to be marginalised towards the exclusive sector when it came to taking decisions (Gullino, 2008). This led to private sector being placed at the center of the renewal activities as these varieties of assignments are assumed to attract new economic capital (Bianchini et al., 1992; Loftman and Nevin, 1995). Regardless of the procedure for urban renewal through which environmental quality redevelopments develops in derelict urban areas is highly contested, the redevelopment of decaying, run-down or underused elements of urban areas with the purpose of bringing new life into them and monetary vitality is crucial in maintaining a market position (Bolton Council, 2009). Regeneration projects would so ideally foster a variety of schemes to achieve the right rate of regeneration that’s sustainable. Particular attention should be paid in order never to harm the community when renewal occurs also fast and not to halt the momentum, dedication and enthusiasm when the procedure of renewal happens also slowly. Design should also are the latest energy efficiency benchmarks where possible and the best quality design and components which represent the neighborhood culture and traditional skills ought to be used (Buhagiar, 2005). Most importantly, as already mentioned, the residents’ concepts and stories must be understood in virtually any proposed regeneration scheme to truly deliver a sustainable environment which imposes all sectors of society to undertake the duty of bringing back life and vibrancy to neglected areas in a city (Hamdi, 2004, Ho et al., 2008).

Figure 2: Ho et al. (2008)Hamdi, N. (2004). Small Change: About the skill of practice and the restrictions of planning in metropolitan areas, Earthscan, London.